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  The story of tissue: the evolution of a vital consumer product
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:44 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

The story of tissue: the evolution of a vital consumer product


    Toilet and facial tissue are something that most of us take for granted, but many may be surprised to learn they are actually relatively new inventions. However, while white toilet paper itself dates back less than a century, there is a much longer record of humans relying on paper for personal cleansing.

    It perhaps comes as little surprise that the Chinese, credited with first developing the pulp papermaking process more than 2000 years ago, are also believed to be the first to use paper for personal cleansing. The first recorded use of toilet paper dates back to 6th century China. During the Tang Dynasty, three hundred years later, an Arab traveler in the region commented that the Chinese do not wash with water when they have done their necessities; but they only wipe themselves with paper.

    Still, it would take several centuries before the world saw anything resembling toilet paper as we know it today. For many years, people turned to other paper instead. Following the rise of printing, for example, many people relied on repurposed newspapers and books.

    The introduction of toilet paper as a commercial product did not occur until 1857. In that year, American inventor Joseph Gayetty began selling packets of paper in individual sheets, marketed as Gayetty’s Medical Paper. Others began to eventually produce this variety of brown, rough and thin paper in countries around the world. In fact, many readers may have personal memories of this high quality toilet paper, which could still be found in certain parts of Europe as late as the 1970s.

    Folds that changed everything

    The first tissue products as we had recognize them today were invented and produced by the American paper manufacturer Kimberly-Clark, who developed cellulose as a replacement for cotton in sanitary products during World War I. Their major innovation was the creping process, in which paper was micro-folded in the course of production. This breaks down the rigidity of the paper and increases the volume, making it both softer and more absorbent than the paper created by Joseph Gayetty 60 years earlier.

    In 1920, Kimberly-Clark released the world's first commercially available tissue product, the sanitary pad Kotex. It was made possible thanks to the new creping process and the work of two men at the company: Frank Sensenbrenner and a young Austrian immigrant named Ernst Mahler. By layering several sheets of tissue, they developed a soft pillow with much greater absorbency than the traditional cotton wool. Four years later, Kimberly-Clark followed the success of Kotex with the disposable handkerchief Kleenex, which remains the market-leading brand for facial tissue paper today.

   


    Customer experience drives development

    In the years following the advent of the creping process, tissue products, such as soft kitchen tissue paper, paper hand towels, jumbo rolls toilet paper white, etc., quickly became popular with consumers, leading many manufacturers to take notice. From the United States, tissue production expanded to Europe in the first half of the twentieth century and ultimately to every other part of the globe as well.

    Tissue production continually evolved throughout this period to keep up with increased market demand and to provide an improved customer experience. As today, manufacturers worked to meet shifting consumer tastes, and paper dinner napkin industry trends came and went along with other consumer fads. One memorable example was the pastel-colored toilet rolls designed to match bathroom interiors that gained popularity in the 1960s. 

    However, a constant in development has been the search for production methods that secure paper that is both strong and soft. For toilet as well as white facial tissue, strength and absorbability are essential to ensuring the paper can do the intended job while keeping hands clean and dry. At the same time, it also needs to avoid causing discomfort in delicate areas of the body. As mini pocket tissues use has become more widespread – first in the Americas and Europe and more recently in other parts of the world – consumers have come to demand increasingly softer and stronger sheets.

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  What Is Tomato Paste & How to Use It
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:42 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

What Is Tomato Paste & How to Use It


    Tomato paste is an essential pantry staple to have on hand for whipping up delicious, deeply flavored meals-it can transform a ho-hum recipe, like a soup or sauce, into something really special. A little bit goes a long way, though, which is why you will most often find tomato paste in small 6-ounce cans. With most recipes only calling for a tablespoon or two of tomato paste, even if you buy the tiniest can, you will still have so much leftover. You can always refrigerate the rest (and hope you remember to use it before it starts growing mold) or freeze it for use down the road (read more on the best way to do this below). Or, better yet, you could make the shift from canned tomato paste to tomato paste in a tube (maybe our favorite option). Here is what you need to know about tomato paste in general, why you should try buying it in a tube, and what to make once you have it.

    What Is Tomato Paste?

        First things first. What is tomato paste, anyway? Tomato paste is basically super-concentrated tomato sauce. If you take tomatoes and cook them down, strain the skin and seeds from the mixture and continue to cook the sauce down until it forms a thick consistency, you get sachet tomato paste. Manufactured tomato pastes often include a stabilizer, like citric acid, and salt (you can also find no-salt-added options), and sometimes herbs and spices. There are also options for double-concentrated and triple-concentrated tomato ketchup, meaning it is even more potent.
    
    Why You Need Tomato Paste in Your Pantry

        The benefit of using tomato ketchup sachet over other canned tomatoes (like tomato puree, crushed tomatoes or diced tomatoes) or even fresh tomatoes, is that you get the deep tomato flavor without all the extra water, making it great for recipes where you do not want a ton of liquid, like meatloaf or taco filling. Tomato paste can be used to intensify flavor over time in slow-cooked recipes or can quickly add a burst of flavor in quick 30-minute recipes for weeknights. To get the most flavor potential out of your tomato paste, plan to add it early on in the cooking process before adding liquids like water, broth or other canned tomatoes. This way, the tomatoes have the chance to caramelize and develop even further.
    
    Tomato Paste in a Tube Exists and You Need It in Your Life

        Yes, it exists and yes, you need to buy it. Tubed tomato paste is a convenient alternative to canned tomato paste that lets you use just what you need, without worrying about what to do with the rest of the can. It is made the same exact same way as the canned stuff but is packaged in a convenient squeezable tube with a screw cap that preserves the bulk tomato paste for longer. Most tubes are 4.5 ounces and yield 9 tablespoons, which is comparable to the 6-ounce cans that contain 10 tablespoons of tomato paste. Look for tubed tomato paste on the shelf next to the canned tomato ketchup, or if your grocery store does not carry it, you can buy it here. While it is a little pricier than its canned counterpart-$3.79 for a 4.5-ounce tube versus $1.19 for a 6-ounce can-you will ultimately get more value out of the tube by wasting less.
    
    How to Use Tomato Paste

        There are so many delicious ideas for how to use tomato paste. Want to whip up a quick homemade tomato sauce? What about a creamy tomato soup to go along with your grilled cheese? Tomato paste is a key ingredient that will add tons of tomatoey flavor quickly. Beyond the obvious option of using 220L drum tomato paste to make a tomato-heavy recipe, like sauce or soup, you can also use tomato paste to elevate the flavor of other recipes-like we did in this Jackfruit Sloppy Joes recipe, in the dipping sauce for these Air-Fryer Zucchini Fries and in our Slow-Cooker Butter Chicken recipe.
    
    When to Use Tomato Paste in a Tube

        All of these recipes use tomato paste in different ways and call for just a few tablespoons, which is where tomato paste in a tube comes in handy, so you can use just what you need.

    Rather than using store-bought taco seasoning that can be super high in sodium, try the homemade variation in this stuffed sweet potato recipe that uses tomato paste to add extra flavor.

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  An Introduction to Machine Vision Systems
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:40 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

An Introduction to Machine Vision Systems


    Machine vision systems are a set of integrated components that are designed to use information extracted from digital images to automatically guide manufacturing and production operations such as go/no testing and quality control processes. These systems can also play a role in automated assembly verification and inspection operations through their ability to guide material handling equipment to position products or materials as needed in a given process. They have wide applications across different industries and can be used to automate any mundane, repetitive tasks that would become tiring to a human inspector or operator. The use of automatic vision measuring machine allows for 100% inspection of products or parts in a process, resulting in improved yields, reductions in defect rates, increased quality, lower costs, and greater consistency of process results.

    How Machine Vision Systems Work

    To understand how a manual vision measuring machine works, it may be helpful to envision it performing a typical function, such as product inspection. First, the sensor detects if a product is present. If there is indeed a product passing by the sensor, the sensor will trigger a camera to capture the image, and a light source to highlight key features. Next, a digitizing device called a frame-grabber takes the camera’s image and translates it into digital output, which is then stored in computer memory so it can be manipulated and processed by software.

    In order to process an image, computer software must perform several tasks. First, the image is reduced in gradation to a simple black and white format. Next, the image is analyzed by system software to identify defects and proper components based on predetermined criteria. After the image has been analyzed, the product will either pass or fail inspection based on the machine vision system’s findings.

    Measurement functions of the large-stroke coordinate measuring instrument are done through the comparison of a recorded dimension from a digital image against a standard valve to establish a tolerance or to determine if the observed value of the dimension is within acceptable levels of tolerance as called for in the design specification for that part.

    Video Motion Quality (VMQ) evaluates the relative motion quality of the distorted video generated from the reference video based on all the frames from the two videos. VMQ uses any frame-based metric to compare frames from original video and distorted video. It uses the timestamp of each frame to measure the intersection value. VMQ measuring machine combines the comparison value with the intersection value in the aggregate function to produce the final result. To explore the efficiency of VMQ, we used a set of uncompressed original videos to generate a new set of encoded videos. These encoded videos are then used to generate a new set of distorted videos that have the same video bit rate and frame size, but the frame rate is reduced.

    In modern machines, the gantry type vision measuring machine superstructure has two legs and is often called a bridge. This moves freely along the granite table with one leg (often referred to as the inside leg) following a guide rail attached to one side of the granite table. The opposite leg (often outside leg) simply rests on the granite table following the vertical surface contour. Air bearings are the chosen method for ensuring friction free travel. In these, compressed air is forced through a series of very small holes in a flat bearing surface to provide a smooth but controlled air cushion on which the CMM can move in a near frictionless manner which can be compensated for through software. The movement of the bridge or gantry along the granite table forms one axis of the XY plane. The bridge of the gantry contains a carriage which traverses between the inside and outside legs and forms the other X or Y horizontal axis. The third axis of movement (Z axis) is provided by the addition of a vertical quill or spindle which moves up and down through the center of the carriage. The touch probe forms the sensing device on the end of the quill. The movement of the X, Y and Z axes fully describes the measuring envelope. Optional rotary tables can be used to enhance the approachability of the measuring probe to complicated workpieces. The rotary table as a fourth drive axis does not enhance the measuring dimensions, which remain 3D, but it does provide a degree of flexibility. Some touch probes are themselves powered rotary devices with the probe tip able to swivel vertically through more than 180 degrees and through a full 360 degree rotation.

    Height gauges can be used to determine an object or workpiece’s height with extremely high accuracy and precision. These precision measuring instruments also provide marked locations on an item relative to one reference plane for subsequent use.

    Center-line distances, internal/external diameters, and step heights are some of the different measuring tasks that can be carried out by high-specification digital height gauges.

    They claim consistency of ±0.0001 inch and can be extremely precise up to 0.001 inches. Of course, the consistency and precision of such instruments still depend on their overall quality, so it’s essential only to source one from websites of reliable manufacturers.

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  Rheometers: How and What do they Measure?
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:38 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Rheometers: How and What do they Measure?


    To measure the rheological properties of your sample with a rotational and oscillatory rheometer requires the determination of the torque and deflection angle of the measuring bob. Your sample provides resistance or a reset torque to the setting. The resulting deflection angle is then measured by the rheometer encoder. The speed is calculated from the deflection angle and the time.

    However, as the user, you are usually more interested in the rheological parameters. How do you get these? Rheological parameters are calculated from the measured values torque, deflection angle, and speed using conversion factors. All further parameters, such as viscosity, are not measured but calculated.

    There is a new grading system for color concentrates and additive masterbatches. It is the European test of melt dispersability known as FPV or Filter Pressure Value. It is reportedly more stringent than the ASTM dispersion test and a more objective indicator of both dispersion quality in a concentrate and how well it will disperse in a polymer matrix. Above all, it is a single number that shows how a concentrate compares with other products.

    What is an FPV?

    The basic principle is that you run compounded material through a screen mesh, which gradually blocks up with trapped particles. The time it takes to block and the degree of pressure build-up are a good indication of how well dispersed the masterbatch was. The filter pressure value tester calls for feeding the lab extruder for a period of time only the matrix polymer without masterbatch to get a baseline die-pressure reading. Then you introduce the masterbatch and record how pressure builds as undispersed pigment or other additive is trapped on the screen pack. The test is a combination of time and pressure peak. After a set time, you reintroduce virgin material into the extruder, and the pressure plot starts to drop to show that you are ending the test. 

    The basic steps of compounding can perfectly be realized with a corotating lab compounding extruder. This makes modular co-rotating twin screw extruders the ideal companion for plastics from synthesis up to recycling. Profit from the harmonized, modular conception of screws and barrels for optimally realizing all processing steps (feeding, conveying, plasticizing, dispersing, reacting, venting, pressure build-up). The system configuration of each model can easily be adapted to the individual processing task - anytime and at a low cost. Or combine several processing steps within a continuously working extruder and use your twin screw extruder as a modern in-line compounder. Depending on the extruder size, on the material to be tested, and on the processing task, throughputs up to 60 kg/h can be reached. This opens up the entire application range to these extruders - from material development up to small-scale production of sheets and films.

    Detailed operating procedures of the lab cast film machine:

    1. Prepare related tools, such as copper sheet, alcohol, mold release agent, etc.

    2. Check whether the die head, rollers, etc. of the casting machine and their surroundings are clean, then clean the die head with alcohol, paraffin wax and gauze, or clean it with a copper sheet and spray it with a release agent.

    3. Check whether the rotation and pressure of each roller of the cast film machines are normal and whether the heat exchange system, pump and pressure gauges can work normally.

    4. Wear each roller with a thick film through film, and then put the chilled roller in a closed state to press the film.

    5. Start the cast film machine, check whether the thick sheet and the melt have adhered firmly and smoothly, and then pull the thick sheet tightly toward the person standing at the exit.

    6. Adjust the appropriate working position and carefully complete all operations.

    7. After the production is over, manually adjust the cast film machine to the non-working position, and then introduce the material into the receiving tray, and stop the machine.

    With the rapid development of industrial science and technology, the lab blown film machine has also mastered the skilled manufacturing process, but compared with the advanced technology level, there are still gaps in some aspects. If the film blowing machine is to achieve rapid development, then it must absorb the advanced technology level, let the film blowing machine develop in a new direction.

    The calenders employ two or more steel rolls that close under pressure to smooth, compress, and in some cases partially bond a nonwoven, plastic, paper, or another substrate. The rollers may be mirror-smooth, embossed with a pattern, or porous, and are usually heated with hot oil or electric elements. The lab calender machines can be utilized in an independent converting setting or an integrated production facility.

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  Is it Safe to Smoke Out of Silicone?
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:35 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Is it Safe to Smoke Out of Silicone?


    Up until a few years ago, bongs had always been made out of glass or ceramic. That is, until the silicone bong came onto the scene.

    We all know the feeling of watching a high-quality piece of glass hit the floor and shatter. Replacing a bong can be a pain, and it can also be costly.

    On top of that, cleaning traditional glass bongs can be very difficult and time-consuming to clean. They also are prone to crack or break from quick temperature changes.

    These common pain points of traditional glass bongs are the reason why silicone water pipes have taken off in the last couple of years. Naturally, before purchasing anything new, you want to make sure that it is right for you.

    Are Silicone Bongs and Hand Pipes Safe?

    The short answer to this question is: yes, as long as the grade silicone is safe for humans to use. There are a few factors that contribute to the safety of a silicone bong, such as:

            BPA and other chemicals they are made with
        
            What temperatures they are rated for

            Where the product is made

    If you focus on each of these factors when making a purchase, you should be able to have a safe experience from your silicone bong – provided you are not using it with any dangerous substances.

    By avoiding the use of products with this nasty contaminant in them, you can drastically reduce your known risk from using silicone based bongs and smoking pipes.

    Adapt a toxic-free lifestyle by upgrading your kitchenware from harmful plastic chemicals to healthier alternatives. Keep your food fresh by eliminating plastic storage containers and kitchen supplies. Swapping plastic with silicone storage container has become increasingly popular in recent years.

    Just like the silicone cooking utensils you might find in your kitchen, silicone ashtrays are made to be resistant to high temperatures. They can be very colorful, so if you’re looking for an exciting ashtray, these might be a good option. And because silicone is such a flexible, rubbery material, these ashtrays are virtually indestructible; you won’t have to worry about it breaking if you accidentally drop it. Silicone also lends itself to easy cleanup, especially since these ashtrays are so flexible, you’ll be able to get into all the nooks and crannies. Speaking of nooks and crannies, silicone ashtrays are often multi-functional, with built-in slots and holes around the outside to store lighters, dab tools, or anything else that could come in handy.

    A rolling tray is a convenient tool enjoyed by those that prefer to roll and smoke their herbs over vapes and bongs.  There are many reasons why you would choose to use a rolling tray.  The first being a sanitary place to roll and grind up your herbs.  Rolling trays also help you keep your area clean and assist in easy clean-up.  They catch crumbs and fallout as you empty your grinder and fill the papers.  You can find rolling trays in any style, color, design you can think of.  The price can range from expensive to affordable.  It is easy to find a rolling tray that is right for you and in your price range.

    The gas mask bong has become something of a cultural icon in recent decades. It is unknown as to how it came about or who the inventor is. That being said, the gas mask bong is certainly unique in the smoking experience it provides. Basically, a gas mask bong is exactly what it sounds like — a bong attached to the end of a gas mask. We are all familiar with the bong and its uses for smoking. But what about the gas mask?

    It turns out there are some advantages to attaching a gas mask to the end of a bong. Mainly, users get extended use out of their smoking products. Unlike a standard bong where the smoke is inhaled then exhaled into the air, the gas mask component is used to trap the smoke creating a sort of hot box. Additionally, because the bong is attached to the mask itself the user has increased freedom of motion with their hands.

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  What Are Evaporative Coolers? Here’s Everything You Need to Know
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:33 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

What Are Evaporative Coolers? Here’s Everything You Need to Know


    Looking for a way to beat the heat? If you do not have a central air conditioning system in your home — or if you do but are researching more environmentally friendly or affordable options — you might be wondering if evaporative air coolers are right for you.

    The answer is … it depends.

    Understanding how evaporative coolers work is a crucial part of figuring out if one will work well in your home. If you are new to evaporative cooling, there is a lot to learn. Here is everything you need to know about how evaporative coolers work — and how to decide if you should invest in one.

    What Are Evaporative Coolers?

    An evaporative air cooler is a type of air conditioner that works by harnessing the power of evaporation to cool air temperatures. When water evaporates, it turns from liquid to gas. As it does so, the highest-energy particles leave the water first, and this leads to a drop in temperature. This is why a moist cloth on your forehead feels good on a hot day — it is actually helping to lower your head temperature as the water evaporates.

    The same scientific principles apply to the evaporative cooling process when it comes to your home air. In a dry environment, the simple process of evaporation can help lower the temperature of the air. You may have felt this for yourself if you have ever misted the air around you to feel cooler on a hot summer day. An evaporative air conditioner uses the same idea, but it adds technology to make the process more efficient — and less messy — than just spraying a room with water and hoping for the best.

    How do Evaporative Coolers Work?

    An evaporative cooling system takes basic evaporation and automates it to efficiently lower the temperature of the air in your home. In general, the machine will consist of a fan, a thick pad, a water reservoir and some additional controls for fine-tuning the results. The fan draws dry, hot air into the machine and across the cooler pads. These thick pads absorb water from the reservoir and have many layers to increase the surface area. As the hot air crosses the pad, the water molecules on the surface evaporate, which causes the air temperature inside the electric air cooler to drop — often by as much as 20 degrees. The fan then blows that cold air into your room, where you can enjoy the chill on a hot day.

    Evaporative coolers can have other useful parts built into them as well. Many utilize air filters and pads that are designed to improve air quality by reducing allergens and minimizing mildew growth — an important consideration for anyone with allergies or other respiratory concerns. A water pump, while not strictly necessary, can streamline the absorption into the cooling pad. Some models offer the option of adding an ice pack to further cool the air the fan blows out into the room. Varying fan speeds, oscillating functions and remote control are also useful features.

    A portable air cooler is a great way to see if evaporative cooling will work in your home without making a big investment upfront. Portable coolers come with wheels to easily move them from room to room for a little extra chilling exactly where you need it. You can also use these outside as long as you can reach an outlet to plug them in. This makes portable evaporative coolers welcome accessories to a picnic, pool party or any other outdoor gathering where people would appreciate a cool breeze. They still work best in dry places, but you won’t have to worry about any special venting (as with portable air conditioners) or humidity build-up (as with indoor evaporative cooler use). If you’re interested in experimenting to see what evaporative coolers are all about, a portable version is a fine way to get started.

    A large industry ceiling fan pushes air down to the living level by pulling from the air that it has above the blades to work with. The air is moved to the floor, and then recirculated back up to above the blades after it spreads across the room and moves back up the walls. Thus, moving back above the blades to repeat the process.

    If a fan does not have enough space between the blades and walls or any other solid obstruction, there will be a vacuum affect created above the blades, and there will be no air for the fan to continue to circulate. With no air to circulate there will be no breeze below the ceiling fan.

    Currently, a number of works and industries operate in a state of polluted air, which is not well ventilated. Therefore, the necessary need is how to better deal with the environmental situation. Industrial exhaust fans are the solution to this requirement. This is an item with air circulation function to eliminate hot air, odors … This industrial fan has a large capacity and wind flow. They are suitable for areas with large acreage such as factories, warehouses, breeding facilities.

    Electric heaters, the device for heating rooms that converts electric current to heat by means of resistors that emit radiant energy. Resistors may be composed of metal-alloy wire, nonmetallic carbon compounds, or printed circuits. Heating elements may have exposed resistor coils mounted on insulators, metallic resistors embedded in refractory insulation and encased in protective metal, or a printed circuit encased in glass. Fins may be used to increase the area that dissipates the heat. Home electric heaters also are used for domestic central heating and for materials processing in the industry.

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  Using SMS and Email to Engage Your Customers
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:31 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Using SMS and Email to Engage Your Customers


    For companies around the world, email is the go-to channel for customer communications. Whether it is logins, notifications, promotions, password resets, or policy updates, email is a tried-and-true platform with more global accessibility than any other medium.

    However, email is only one part of the customer engagement experience.

    Regardless of who you are trying to contact or where they are, you can now complete the customer engagement package with another robust API: SMS.

    Alone, SMS PVA is a powerful engagement tool that allows businesses to send concise, timely messages to their customers. Combined with email, the two create a seamless customer communication experience that is reliable, scalable, and downright powerful.

    What is an SMS?

    SMS stands for Short Message Service and is a more technical term for what we know as a text message. The SMS API bridges the gap between the Internet and the carrier network in order to send and receive SMS messages.

    The Need for SMS

        When it comes to business communications, consumers have varying preferences. According to our 2020 Global Messaging Engagement Report, people across generations and borders prefer email and SMS for their communications. That is why India SMS PVA and email both deserve a place in your communication toolset.
    
    Using multiple communication channels provides customers with a seamless experience. With multiple mediums to choose from, customers can engage with your business on the channels they prefer.

    Like email, Mexico SMS PVA needs to be used at the right time and for the right message. Below are some of the most common use cases for leveraging SMS in addition to email.

    The actual nuts and bolts of how the internet works are not something people often stop to consider. The problem with that is the inherent danger of data security breaches and identity theft that come along with cute dog pictures, 24-hour news updates, and great deals online.

    But what actually happens when you browse the web? You might be using a proxy server at your office, on a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or you could be one of the more tech-savvy who always use a proxy server of some kind or another.

    What is a Proxy Server?

    A proxy server is any machine that translates traffic between networks or protocols. It is an intermediary server separating end-user clients from the destinations that they browse. Proxy servers provide varying levels of functionality, security, and privacy depending on your use case, needs, or company policy.

    If you are using a proxy server, traffic flows through the proxy server on its way to the address you requested. The request then comes back through that same proxy server (there are exceptions to this rule), and then the proxy server forwards the data received from the website to you.

    If that is all it does, why bother with a proxy server? Why not just go straight from to the website and back?

    Modern proxy servers do much more than forwarding web requests, all in the name of data security and network performance. Proxy servers act as a firewall and web filter, provide shared network connections, and cache data to speed up common requests. A good proxy server keeps users and the internal network protected from the bad stuff that lives out in the wild internet. Lastly, proxy servers can provide a high level of privacy.

    How Does a Proxy Server Operate?

    Every computer on the internet needs to have a unique Internet Protocol (IP) Address. Think of this IP address as your computer street address. Just as the post office knows to deliver your mail to your street address, the internet knows how to send the correct data to the correct computer by the IP address.

    An India proxy server is basically a computer on the internet with its own IP address that your computer knows. When you send a web request, your request goes to the proxy server first. The proxy server then makes your web request on your behalf, collects the response from the webserver, and forwards you the web page data so you can see the page in your browser.

    When the proxy server forwards your web requests, it can make changes to the data you send and still get you the information that you expect to see. A proxy server can change your IP address, so the web server does not know exactly where you are in the world. It can encrypt your data, so your data is unreadable in transit. And lastly, a Mexico cheap proxy provider can block access to certain web pages, based on IP address.

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  Understanding Pipe Fittings
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:26 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Understanding Pipe Fittings


    Pipe fittings are components used to join pipe sections together with other fluid control products like valves and pumps to create pipelines. The common connotation for the term fittings is associated with the ones used for metal and plastic pipes which carry fluids. There are also other forms of pipe fittings that can be used to connect pipes for handrails and other architectural elements, where providing a leak-proof connection is not a requirement. Pipe link fittings may be welded or threaded, mechanically joined, or chemically adhered, to name the most common mechanisms, depending on the material of the pipe.

    There is some inconsistency in terminology surrounding the terms pipe, tube, and tubing. Therefore, the term pipe fittings will sometimes be mentioned in the context of tubing as well as pipe. While similar in shape to tube fittings, pipe fittings are seldom joined by methods such as soldering. Some methods overlap, such as the use of compression power fittings, but where these are commonplace for connecting tubes or tubing, their use in pipe connections is rarer. It suffices to say that while there are general distinctions, the common usage of terms can differ from supplier to supplier, although they represent the same items.

    Pipe Fittings Explained: Fitting Materials and Manufacturing Processes

    Cast and malleable iron

    Fittings for cast iron pipe fall under hubless and bell-and-spigot styles. Hubless designs rely on elastomeric couplers that are secured to the outer diameters of the pipe or fitting by tension clamps, usually a stainless steel band clamp that compresses the elastomeric material and forms a seal. These hubless or no hub designs are sometimes referred to as rubber pipe couplings or rubber plumbing couplings and are especially popular for transitioning from one material to another—from copper to cast iron, for instance. Bell-and-spigot, or sometimes, hub-and-spigot, overhead line fittings are joined today primarily with elastomeric gaskets that fit inside the bell and accommodate the insertion of the plain pipe end or fitting. Older systems before the 1950s were caulked using a combination of molten lead and a fibrous material such as oakum. Cast iron pipe is sometimes joined with bolted flanges, or in some cases, mechanical compression connections. Flanged joints employed in underground applications can subject the pipe to settlement stresses unless the pipe is adequately supported.

    The anti-vibration hammer is designed to reduce wind-induced wire vibration. High-voltage overhead lines have high pole positions and large spans. When the wire is subjected to wind, it vibrates. When the wire vibrates, the working conditions at the wire suspension are the most unfavorable. Due to multiple vibrations, the wire will be fatigue damage due to periodic bending. When the span of the overhead line is greater than 120 meters, vibration-resistant hammers are generally used to prevent vibration. The installation position of the anti-vibration hammer should be determined according to the construction requirements. After the anti-vibration hammer is installed, it can produce the movement opposite to the vibration of the wire, thus eliminating or weakening the vibration of the wire.

    Pole Line Hardware is Used in Multiple Industries

    Pole line hardware is used in industries such as telecommunication, aviation, electrical, automotive, fabrication, marine, medical, mining and aerospace. This hardware is made of various materials including steel, aluminum, platinum, silver, titanium and copper.

    Manufacturers of pole line hardware have been in existence since the 19th century. As such, the manufacture and design of pole line hardware has improved over time. It is important to understand the different specifications and requirements of your cables. Choosing fasteners that are suited to these exact tolerances is crucial to ensure stability.

    Since pole lines support and distribute utilities for long periods of time, the hardware used in the making of pole lines must be subjected to tests that enhance strength and eliminate the possibility of weakness. These tests include wet and dry AC withstands, thermal imaging, compression, radio interference voltage and partial voltage tests.

    With daily advancements in technology, distributors of pole line utilities have embraced safety and efficiency that goes a long way in serving the general population. AMAC Equipment supplies tested and true high-quality hardware like crossover clamps and drops hardware to suit multiple applications in the field.

    Bolts are one of the most common elements used in construction and machine design. They hold every-thing together – from screws in electric toothbrushes and door hinges to massive bolts that secure concrete pillars in buildings. Yet, have you ever stopped to wonder where they actually came from? 

    What the majority of researchers on this topic do agree on, though, is that it was the Industrial Revolution that sped up the development of the nuts and bolts and put them firmly on the map as an important component in engineering and construction world.

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  Sit-Inside vs. Sit-On-Top Kayaks – 4 Reasons One is Better
Posted by: terimica - 09-14-2021, 12:25 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Sit-Inside vs. Sit-On-Top Kayaks – 4 Reasons One is Better


    Both hardshell and inflatable kayaks can be categorized into two different styles:

            Sit-on-top kayak (SOT) and      
        
            Sit-in kayak (SIT)

    The two designs differ drastically from one another, and each suits a different purpose.

    The differences between sit-on-top vs. sit-in kayaks

    The most apparent distinction between sit-inside and sit-on-top inflatable kayaks (& hardshell models) is that SIKs have an enclosed cockpit that positions the paddler inside the boat at or below the water level. In contrast, SOT kayakers sit on top of the kayak above the water’s surface.

    This fundamental divergence of design affects every aspect of their use and purpose.

    The sit-on-top model is the most popular design among beginners and recreational kayakers because it does not make the paddler feel like they are trapped inside of the kayak’s cockpit if they capsize.

    If they do tip over for some reason, they are far easier to reen

    The sit-inside model is more prevalent among intermediate and advanced paddlers because its design provides a significantly lower center of gravity, resulting in enhanced secondary stability during specific activities (which I’ll talk about later).

    The cockpit of a SIK kayak is surrounded by a rim for attaching a spray skirt to keep water out.

    They have similarities as well

    Even though there are some significant differences between the two styles, their main parts are similar:

            The top of the kayak is called the deck, where you’ll often have bungees or deck lines.
        
            The bottom is the hull.
        
            The front is the bow.
        
            The back is the stern.
        
    Both types of kayaks have:

            A seat (or seats in case of tandem kayaks).
    
            Foot support like simple footwells or adjustable foot pedals (which are more comfortable on a full day of paddling).

            Top of the line kayaks will additionally have a built-in backrest to make paddling for hours more comfortable.

    The pros and cons of sit-inside & sit-on-top kayaks

    Sit-Inside kayak pros

            The most significant advantage of a sit-inside kayak is that its center of gravity is lower than that of a sit-on-top kayak, which provides better secondary stability. This enables you to lean the boat on its side edge for more efficient turning and stay upright in rough seas. There is a trade-off, though, which I’ll get to in the cons section.
        
            Because sit-inside kayaks have a lower center of gravity, they can be made much narrower than a sit-on-top model. Being slimmer and longer means they are faster and easier to paddle than SOT kayaks, making them well suited for longer trips.
        
            The lower profile also means that sit-inside kayaks are affected by wind to a lesser extent.
        
            The enclosed cockpit provides protection from the sun or rough water.
        
            A spray skirt can easily be attached to the cockpit coaming for full protection from rain, snow, or frigid water during winter paddling. A well-sealed high-quality spray skirt can also be a safety feature because it will keep water out of the cockpit in case you flip (providing you can roll back and correct your white water kayak).
        
            Sitting inside a cockpit lets you place your legs against the side of the kayak & the underside of the deck. Your body effectively becomes one with the kayak’s body to enhance your control of the kayak, making it more maneuverable.
        
            You will find there’s room inside the kayak to store your equipment and keep them dry. Water can’t get in through self-draining scupper holes found on SOK kayaks. Some sit-in kayaks even have integrated watertight storage compartments.
        
            Due to the narrower beam of SIK kayaks, you can use a shorter paddle. This makes the boat easier to propel forward because the moment arm will be tighter. (The moment arm is the distance from your centerline to the part of the paddle entering the water. The shorter it is, the easier it is to paddle.)

    Sit-Inside Kayak Cons

            The single biggest con against sit-inside kayaks concerns floatation and ease of rescue, as the cockpit can take in a lot of water in case you capsize.
        
            Touring kayaks have 1 or 2 integrated bulkheads to circumvent this. But “what is a bulkhead”, you ask?
A kayak bulkhead is a built-in compartment, which traps air inside of the kayak. The bulkhead limits how much water can get into the boat and acts as a floatation chamber to keep it afloat if you swamp. Additionally, bulkheads have a hatch so that you can use them to dry-store supplies as well.
        
            Most recreational SIT kayaks will not have a bulkhead, but the better ones have a single one behind the seat.
        
            If you are alone, flipping a swamped kayak back is very difficult, and so is getting the water out of it. Paddling a kayak filled with water is close to impossible unless it has bulkheads that stayed dry. For this reason, beginners using a SIK kayaks should paddle close to shore, so they can swim out and empty their kayak if they capsize.
        
            If you plan on going out on open water, you need a touring kayak with bulkheads, and first, learn how to correct your capsized kayak and get back into it. Coastal paddling is a treat, but you have to prepare to stay safe.
        
            You can only carry items that fit through the cockpit and other hatches. Tieing larger items on deck degrades performance and your balance.
        
            Remember the increased secondary stability of SIK kayaks due to their lower center of gravity? Well, here is the flip side. The low sitting position causes them to have less primary stability.
        
    Sit-On-Top Kayak Pros

            They have a wider beam, giving them an advantage in initial stability. This makes them easier to use and more stable than sit-in kayaks.
        
            They are easy to get in and out of. You can safely jump into the water for a swim and climb back whenever you wish.
        
            If a SOT kayak flips over, it doesn’t swamp (fill up) since it doesn’t have a cockpit. You can quickly flip it back over and climb back on.
       
            Any water left on the deck will drain away through self-bailing drain holes.
        
            The design is convenient when launching, as well as for landing. You can lower yourself onto the kayak’s seat and swing your legs on if you launch from knee-deep water. This makes SOK kayaks the choice for people with mobility issues.
        
            There is no cockpit to fit into, which means they are better for larger people.
        
            A SOT has more generous storage space; you can bungee anything on the deck, which is essential on multi-day camping trips.
        
            And because everything is on the deck, access to your gear is more comfortable. You won’t have to struggle and reach deep into your cockpit to get your things. This is especially important for fishermen, who need space to store their gear and freedom of movement to use their equipment. All fishing kayaks are of the sit-on-top variety.
        
            Sit-on-top kayaks are cheaper than their sit-inside counterparts.

    Stand-up paddleboarding is becoming more popular each year. Hawaiians have been using it for years as a means to keep fit when the waves are not adequate for surfing. By using a paddleboard surfers were able to enjoy the water and obtain some exercise simultaneously. In the last several years millions of people have begun to enjoy paddle boarding while standing (SUP). People now engage in stand-up paddling to enjoy the water, spend time with friends, and improve their fitness level.

    SUP board can provide you with a very good overall workout. You will make use of balance and strength in order to remain upright and propel yourself in the water. The level of intensity you will experience will be variable and be dependent on your venue. If you are paddling in the ocean and there are a lot of waves and an ocean current, your workout will be intense. If you are simply drifting in relatively placid waters, it will not be so hard-core.

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  Introduction to Pressure Seal valves
Posted by: mutemica - 09-13-2021, 12:51 AM - Forum: Bug Report / Feature Request - No Replies

Introduction to Pressure Seal valves

    Pressure seal construction is adopted for Valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of above 170 bar. The unique feature about the pressure seal Bonnet is that the body-Bonnet joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the Valve increases, compared to other constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leaks in the body-Bonnet joint.

        The higher the internal pressure, the greater the sealing force. Easy dismantling is made possible by dropping the Bonnet assembly into the body cavity and driving out the four-segmental thrust rings by means of a push pin.
    
    Relying on fairly simple design principles, pressure seal valves have proven their capability to handle increasingly demanding fossil and combined-cycle steam isolation applications, as designers continue to push boiler, HRSG, and piping system pressure/temperature envelopes. Pressure seal Valves are typically available in size ranges from 2 inches to 24 inches and ASME B16.34 pressure classes from #600 to #2500, although some manufacturers can accommodate the need for larger diameters and higher ratings for special applications.

    Pressure seal gate valves are available in many material qualities such as A105 forged and Gr.WCB cast, alloy F22 forged and Gr.WC9 cast; F11 forged and Gr.WC6 cast, austenitic stainless F316 forged and Gr.CF8M cast; for over 500°C, F316H forged and suitable austenitic cast grades.

    The pressure seal design concept can be traced back to the mid-1900s, when, faced with ever increasing pressures and temperatures (primarily in power applications), Valve manufacturers began designing alternatives to the traditional bolted-Bonnet approach to sealing the body/Bonnet joint. Along with providing a higher level of pressure boundary sealing integrity, many of the pressure seal globe valves design weighed significantly less than their bolted Bonnet Valve counterparts.

    Bolted Bonnets vs. Pressure Seals

    To better understand the pressure seal design concept, let's contrast the body-to-Bonnet sealing mechanism between bolted Bonnets and pressure seals. FIG. 1 depicts the typical Bolted Bonnet valve. The body flange and Bonnet flange are joined by studs and nuts, with a gasket of suitable design/material inserted between the flange faces to facilitate sealing. Studs/nuts/bolts are tightened to prescribed torques in a pattern defined by the manufacturer to affect optimal sealing. However, as system pressure increases, the potential for leakage through the body/Bonnet joint also increases.

    Pressure Seal Gaskets

    One of the primary components involved in sealing the pressure seal Valve is the gasket itself. Early pressure seal gaskets were manufactured from iron or soft steel. These gaskets were subsequently silver-plated to take advantage of the softer plating material's ability to provide a tighter seal. Due to the pressure applied during the Valve's hydrotest, a set (or deformation of the gasket profile) between the Bonnet and gasket was taken. Because of the inherent Bonnet take-up bolt and pressure seal joint elasticity, the potential for the Bonnet to move and break that set when subjected to system pressure increases/ decreases existed, with body/Bonnet joint leakage the result.

    This problem could be effectively negated by utilizing the practice of "hot torquing" the Bonnet take-up bolts after system pressure and temperature equalization, but it required owner/user maintenance personnel to do so after plant startup. If this practice was not adhered to, the potential for leakage through the body/Bonnet joint existed, which could damage the pressure seal gasket, the Bonnet and/or the I.D. of the Valve body, as well as creating compounding problems and inefficiencies that the steam leakage could have on plant operations. As a result, Valve designers took several steps to address this problem.

    Although many manufacturers still recommend hot torquing, the potential for leakage when this is not done is greatly diminished. The seating surfaces in pressure seal Valves, as in many power plant Valves, are subjected to, comparatively speaking, very high seating loads. Seat integrity is maintained as a function of tight machining tolerances on component parts, means of providing the requisite torque to open/close as a function of gears or actuation, and selection/ application of proper materials for seating surfaces.

    Cobalt, nickel, and iron-based hardfacing alloys are utilized for optimal wear resistance of the wedge/disc and seat ring seating surfaces. Most commonly used are the CoCr-A (e.g., Stellite) materials. These materials are applied with a variety of processes, including shielded metal arc, gas metal arc, gas tungsten arc, and plasma (transferred) arc. Many pressure seal Globe Valves are designed having integral hardfaced seats, while the Gate Valves and Check Valves typically have hardfaced seat rings that are welded into the Valve body.
    
Both butterfly valves and ball valves offer unique benefits, so choosing between them in certain processes isn't a hard choice. It can be problematic when a process requires valve characteristics that both valves have. We need a deeper understanding of the butterfly valve vs ball valve in order to pick the correct valve. 

    Teflon is a polymer compound formed by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with excellent chemical stability, corrosion resistance, sealing, high lubrication and non-viscosity, electrical insulation and good aging resistance for media such as strong acid, strong alkali, strong oxidant. Its operating temperature is -200 ~ 180℃, poor fluidity, large thermal expansion. Teflon lined valves ensures extremely high chemical resistance and longevity, can be widely used in corrosive applications in the chemical, electric machinery,harmaceutical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper, and metallurgical industries.

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